1) R. T. H. Collis, "Lidar: a new atmospheric probe," Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 92, p. 220, 1966.

2) W. Viezee, E. E. Uthe and R. T. H. Collis, "Lidar observations of airfield approach conditions: An exploratory study," J. App. Meteorol. 8, p.274, 1969.

3) M. C. W. Sandford, "Laser scatter measurements in the atmosphere and above," J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 29, p.1657, 1966.

4) J. D. Spinhirne, B. M. Herman and J. A. Reagan, "Technique for obtaining vertical profiles of backscattering and extinction cross sections using slant-path lidar measurements," in Abstracts 5th Conf. on Laser Atmospheric Studies, Amer. Meteor, Soc., (Williamsburg, VA), p.20, June 4-6, 1973.

5) W. Hitschfeld and J. Bordan, "Errors inherent in the radar measurements of rainfall at attenuating wavelengths," J. Meteorol. 11, p.58,1954.

6) E. W. Barrett and O. Ben-Dov, "Application of the lidar to air pollution measurements," J. Appl. Meteorol. 6, p.500, 1967.

7) P. A. Davis, "The analysis of lidar signatures of cirrus clouds," Appl. Opt. 8, p.2044, 1969.

8) W. B. Johnson and E. E. Uthe, "Lidar study of the keystone stack plume," Atmos. Environ. 5, p.703, 1971.

9) J. A. Curcio and G. L. Knestrick, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, p.686, 1958.

10) R. W. Fenn, Appl. Opt. 5, p.293, 1966.

11) S. Twomey and H. B. Howell, Appl. Opt. 4, p.501, 1965.

12) J. D. Klett, "Lidar inversion with variable backscatter/extinction ratios," Appl. Opt. 24, p.1638, 1985.

13) F. G. Fernald, B. M. Herman and J. A. Reagan, "Determination of aerosol height distributions by lidar, " J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, p.482, 1972.

14) R. G. Pinnik, S. G. Jennings, P. Chylek, C. Ham, and W. T. Grandy, Jr., "Backscatter and extinction in water clouds," J. Geophys. Res. 88, 6787-6796 (1983).

15) V. E. Derr, "Estimation of the extinctioin coefficient of clouds from multiwavelength lidar backscatter measurements, " Appl. Opt. 19, 2310-2314 (1980).

16) K. Parameswaran, K. O. Rose, and B. V. K. Murthy, "Relationship between backscattering and extinction coefficients of aerosols with application to turbid atmosphere,"Appl. Opt., 30, 3059-3071 (1991).

17) G. P. Gobbi, "Lidar estimation of stratospheric aerosol properties: Surface, volume, and extinction to backscatter ratio," J. Geophys. Res., 100, 11,219-11,235 (1995).

18) H. Jaeger and D. Hofmann, "Midlatitude lidar backscatter to mass, area, and extinction conversion model based in situ aerosol measurements from 1980 to 1987," Appl. Opt., 30, 127-138 (1991).

19) Y. Takano and K.-N. Liou, "Solar radiative transfer in cirrus clouds. Part I: Single scattering and Optical Properties of Hexagonal Ice Crystals,"J. Atmos.Sci., 46, 818-837 (1989).

20) Y. Takano and K.-N. Liou, "Radiative transfer in cirrus clouds. Part III: Light scattering by irregular ice crystals," J. Atmos.Sci., 52, 3-19 (1995).

21) C. M. R. Platt, "Remote sounding of high clouds, VI, Optical properties of midlatitude and tropical cirrus,"J. Atmos. Sci., 44, 729-747 (1987).

22) A. Notari, U. N. Singh, T. D. Wilkerson, and W. C. Braun, "Optical properties of high clouds, Optical remote sensing of the atmosphere," Tech.Dig.Ser., 4, 210-212 (1990).

23) D. G. Guasta, M. Morandi, and L. Stefanutti, "One year of cloud lidar data from Dumont d'Urville (Antarctica) 1. General overview of geometrical and optical properties," J. Geophys. Res., 98, 18,575-18,587 (1993).

24) J. D. Klett, "Stable analytical inversion solution for processing lidar returns, " Appl. Opt. 20, p.211, 1981.

25) H. G. Hughes, J. A. Ferguson and D. H. Stephens, "Sensitivity of a lidar inversion algorithm to parameters relating atmospheric backscatter and extinction," Appl. Opt. 24, 1609-1613 (1985).

26) Y. Sasano and H. Nakane, "Signigicance of the extinction/backscatter ratio and the booundary value term in the solution for the two-component lidar equation," Appl. Opt. 23, 11-12 (1984).

27) Y. Sasano, E. V. Browell and S. Ismail, "Error caused by using a constant extinction/ backscattering ratio in the lidar solution," Appl. Opt. 24, 3929-3932 (1985).

28) J. Qiu, "Sensitivity of lidar solution to boundary values and determination of the values," Adv. Atmos. Sci. 5, 229-241 (1988).

29) M. Matsumoto and N. Takeuchi, "Effects of misestimated far-end boundary values on two common lidar inversion solutions," Appl. Opt. 33, 6451-6456 (1994).

30) L. R. Bissonnete, "Sensitivity analysis of lidar inversion algorithms," Appl. Opt. 25, p.2122, 1986.

31) F. G. Fernald, "Analysis of atmospheric lidar observation: some comments," Appl. Opt. 23, p.652, 1984.

32) Y. S. Balin, S. I. Kavkyanov, G. M. Krekov and I. A. Razenkov, "Noise-proof inversion of lidar equation," Opt. Lett. 12, p.13, 1987.

33) J. A. Weinman, "Derivation of atmospheric extinction profiles and wind speed over the ocean from a sarallite-borne lidar," Appl. Opt. 27, p.3994, 1988.

34) G. J. Kunz, "Transmission as an input boundary value for an analytical solution of a single-scatter lidar equation," Appl. Opt. 35, 3255-3260 (1996).

35) C. Werner, J. Streicher, H. Herrmann and H.-G. Dahn, "Multiple-scattering experiments," Opt. Eng. 31, p.1731, 1992.

36) D. L. Hutt, L. R. Bissonnette and L. Durand, "Multiple field of view lidar returns from atmospheric aerosols," Appl. Opt. 33, p.2338, 1994.

37) C. M. R. Platt, "Lidar and radiometric observation of cirrus clouds," J. Atmos. Sci. 30, p.1191, 1973.

38) Special issue on "Multiple-scattering lidar experiments," Appl. Phys. B 60, p.315, 1995.

39) J. A. Weinman, "Effects of multiple scattering on light pulses reflected by turbid atmospheres," J. Atmos. Sci. 33, p.1764, 1976.

40) K. E. Kunkel and J. A. Weinman, "Monte Carlo analysis of multiply scattered lidar returns," J. Atmos. Sci. 33, p.1772, 1976.

41) P. Voelger, Z. Liu, and N. Sugimoto, "Influence of multiple scattering on measurements with ELISE," Proc. of The First International Workshop on Spaceborne Cloud Profiling Radar, Tsukuba, Japan, 205-211, (2000).

42) T. Imai, Y. Kawamura, N. Tanioka, K. Asai, T. Itabe, O. Uchino, T. Kobayashi, Y. Sasano, and T. Aoyagi, "NASADA ELISE (MDS-lidar) program," Proc. of SPIE, 3218, p.177 (1997).

43) D. M. Winker, R. H. Couch and M. P. McCormick, "An overview of LITE: NASA's Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment," Proc. IEEE 84, 164-180 (1996).

44) M. Hess, P. Koepke, and I. Schult, "Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds: The Software Package OPAC," Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc., 79, 831-844 (1998).

45) M. Kerscher, W. Krichbaumer, U. G. Oppel, and M. Noormohammadian, " " Opt. Rev. 2, 304-307 (1995).

46) B. T. N. Evans, "On the inversion of the lidar equation," Defense Research Establishment Valcartier Report 4343/84.

47) W. Carnuth and R. Reiter, "Cloud extinction profile measurements by lidar using Klett's inversion method," Appl. Opt. 25, p.2899, 1986.

48) K. Sassen, M. Griffin, and G. C. Dodd, "Optical scattering and microphysical properties of subvisual cirrus clouds, and climatic implications," J. Appl. Meteor. 28, 91-98 (1989).

49) S. A. Young, "Analysis of lidar backscatter profiles in optical thin clouds," Appl. Opt. 30, p.7019, 1995.

50) Z. Liu and N. Sugimoto, "Theoretical and experimental study of inversion algorithms for space lidar observation of clouds and aerosols," Proc. of SPIE 3494, 296-304 (1998).

51) K. Sassen and B. S. Cho, "Subvisual-thin cirrus lidar dataset for satellite verification and climatological research," J. Appl. Meteor. 31, 1275-1285 (1992).

52) Y. Sasano and E. V. Browell, "Light scattering charateristics of various aerosol types derived from multiple wavelength lidar observations," Appl. Opt. 28, 1670-1679 (1989).

53) Z. Liu, P. Voelger and N. Sugimoto, "Simulations of the observation of clouds and aerosols with the Experimental Lidar in Space Equipment system," Appl. Opt. 39, 3120-3137 (2000).

54) J. F. Potter, "Two-frequency lidar inversion technique," Appl. Opt. 26, 1250-1256 (1987).

55) J. Ackermann, "Two-wavelength lidar inversion algorithm for a two-component atmospehere," Appl. Opt. 36, 5134-5143 (1997).

56) J. D. Spinhirne, J. A. Reagan, and B. M. Herman, "Vertical distribution of aerosol extinction cross section and inference of aerosol imaginary index in the troposphere by lidar technique," J. Appl. Meterol. 19, 426-438 (1980).

57) F. F. Hall and H. Y. Ageno, "Absolute calibration of a laser system for atmospheric probing," Appl. Opt. 9, 1820-1824 (1970).

58) M. D. Guasta, "Errors in the retrieval of thin-cloud optical parameters obtained with a two-boundary algorithm," Appl. Opt. 37, 5522-5540 (1998).

59) Z. Liu, P. Voelger and N. Sugimoto, "Space lidar observations of clouds and aerosols," Submitted to SPIE's Second International Asia-Pacific Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Environmental , and Space, Sendai, Japan (October, 2000).

60) J. M. Intrieri, G. L. Stephens, W. L. Eberhard and T. Uttal, "A method for determing cirrus cloud particle sizes using lidar and radar backscatter technique," J. Appl. Meteorl. 22, 1074-1082 (1993).

61) G. G. Mace, K. Sassen, S. Kinne and T. P. Ackerman, "An examination of cirrus cloud characteristics using data from millimeter wave radar and lidar: The 24 April SUCCESS case study," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1133-1136 (1998).